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Glenbuchat Heritage

26 Badenyon, General View
The Glenbuchat Image Library
26 Badenyon, General View

From right to left note:

Site of Old Glenbuchat Castle
Jean's mothers House
Jean Farquharsons House
Badenyon Farmhouse
Badenyon Farm steading

Search on 'Badenyon' for more details and pictures of Badenyon site

1865 Badenyon Map note the number of buildings

A well-preserved limekiln is situated near the foot of a S-facing scarp overlooking the flood-plain of the Water of Buchat about 90m SE of Badenyon farmsteading (NJ31NW 16). It is serviced by a spectacular terraced trackway that zig-zags up the slope towards the site of the old farm-buildings on the summit of the river cliff above.
The facade of the kiln faces SE and rises to a height of 3.85m. The central draw-hole at its foot measures 1.6m in height, 1.25m in width and at least 2.7m in depth; it is flanked by two buttresses. Immediately above the lintel of the draw-hole is a rectangular aperture measuring 0.5m in height, 0.6m in width and at least 0.7m in depth, but the rear is blocked by rubble. The bowl, which measures 3.5m in diameter and about 2m in depth, is comparatively well-preserved, although a young ash grows from its centre and the inner face on the SE has begun to collapse. Its rim measures 0.8m in thickness and rises 0.9m above the adjacent trackway.
Although the kiln is not indicated on the 1st edition of the OS 6-inch map (Aberdeenshire, 1869, sheet L), it is noted as an 'Old Limekiln' on the 2nd edition of the map (1903, sheet l).
Visited by RCAHMS (ATW), 19 May 1997.

Old Glenbuchat Castle
(NJ 3412 1898) Site of Castle (NR)
OS 6"map, Aberdeenshire, 2nd ed., (1902)

In 1866 there were no remains of this castle, once surrounded by a deep fosse, and protected by a tower. Traditionally the house of John O'Badenyon in the 13th century.
Name Book 1866.

In 1898 all that remained of the Castle of Badenyon was a few pieces of sandstone against the wall of an adjacent cottage, and a recessed door inside. The moat was visible as a crop-mark. The castle, shown on a map of 1654, was the old residence of the Gordons of Glenbuchat until Glenbuchat Castle (NJ31SE 4) was built in AD 1590.
Aberdeen J Notes and Queries 1912; W D Simpson 1942.

No trace and no local knowledge of this castle.
Visited by OS (N K B) 4 September 1968.

The symbol denoting the site of the castle on both the 2nd edition of the OS 6-inch map (Aberdeenshire, 1903, sheet l) and the 1975 edition of the OS 1:10,000 map lies about 20m SW of the easterly cottage at Badenyon (NJ31NW 16) and coincides with the upper section of a steep, grassy scarp that juts out into the floodplain of the Water of Buchat. However, although the ground surface immediately to the S of that cottage and on the slope of the scarp is much disturbed, the amorphous hollows, hummocks, fragmentary trackways and building-platforms hereabouts do not seem to indicate the remains of a tower or larger castle. One of the building-platforms retains the NW corner of a building which is depicted as roofed on the 1st edition of the OS 6-inch map (Aberdeenshire, 1869, sheet l) and it is likely that the rest of the features are connected with the farmstead and are of relatively recent origin.
Although 20th century scholarship is consistent in identifying the location of the castle with the site marked by the antiquity symbol on the later edition of the OS map, the 1st edition OS map places it about 120m to the ESE, near the S corner of a field (NJ 3424 1896). No trace of any structure is visible there, although vegetation marks have been observed in the vicinity on vertical aerial photographs held by Aberdeenshire Council (see NJ31NW 5). They do not appear to indicate the site of a tower either.
Visited by RCAHMS (ATW), 19 May 1997.

Site of Badenyon Castle
A flat-topped mound just to the east of the present-day Badenyon farm looks as though it may have been where the castle (now disappeared) may have stood. McConnochie in DONSIDE (1900) wrote of it: According to tradition, built by one of the Mowats in the 13th century. John of Badenyon has been rendered famous by a ballad by Rev. John Skinner. Mowat's Stone stood between Glenbucket Lodge and Badenyon; it was, alas, broken up by a mason for building purposes.

JEANNIE´S HOUSE: single storey and attic, 3-bay farmhouse. Snecked rubble with squared rubble quoins and margins. Stone and timber mullions. Symmetrical S elevation with pitch-roofed timber porch to centre bay with flanking bipartite windows giving way to bipartite dormers and central cast-iron rooflight.
3-pane upper sashes over tall 2-pane lower sashes, 4-pane glazing pattern to rear, all in timber sash and case windows. Grey slates. Coped ashlar stacks with clay cans; ashlar-coped skews.
INTERIOR: ground floor with cast-iron stove built into open hearth to W room, and timber fire-surround with tiled cheeks and cast-iron grate to E; timber dog-leg staircase with ball-finialled newel post.

JEANNIE´S MOTHER´S HOUSE: single storey, 3-bay cottage with centre door and flanking windows, corrugated iron roof with 2 traditional rooflights. Rubble with remains of thin lime render and large granite lintels reducing toward top. Interior cleared but retaining flat-arched double-lintelled stone hearth and remains of boarded timber panelling.
Individually these buildings display a variety of interesting traditional detail including distinctive Glenbuchat Estate architecture (as at Dulax, Baltimore, Belnaglack and Newseat), early steading and dwelling layout, and rare retention of little-altered interior detail.

BEGG'S HOUSE Steading. (see 1851 Census below with details of the Begg Family) Formerly listed as Badenyon Farmhouse, Begg´s House is an outstanding and rare survival of an early Donside vernacular farmhouse. Although now falling into decay it nevertheless exhibits some very fine interior features which identify it as a superior dwelling in the Glen. The extraordinary wide-arched ingle-type fireplace enclosing a canopied central hearth was the only one located during the 2005 survey of Glenbuchat, but a few identical or very similar structures were discovered in the adjoining parish of Strathdon at the old farmhouse at Skellater House, Bellabeg House (also in the older house), West Tornahaish and Mains of Glencarvie. A `Glenbuchat ingle of the last century´ is illustrated in the Book of Glenbuchat (fig 39) but it does not immediately appear to be the Badenyon example leading to the assumption that there is (or was) at least one further example in the Glen, possibly that at Dulax which may have been partly enclosed. Fenton & Walker say ´These fireplaces were much larger than one would expect in the size of building, being of a scale more suitable for the great hall of a tower house or castle´. A striking example of the great hearth, with well cut voussoirs, can be found in a farmhouse dated 1822 in Glenfenzie at the top of Glengairn. The wall recess beside the front door is another feature found in a number of Strathdon houses, its purpose was probably for storing a container of milk or water.

Both the western farmhouse of Badenyon and its associated steading (NJ 3400 1901) have been abandoned, and the house is falling into dereliction.
The house, which measures 14.2m from E to W by 5.6m transversely overall, is of one-and-a-half storeys and fronted with half dormers lighting the rooms on the first floor. The front presents a symmetrical facade, with windows to either side of the central doorway. The kitchen lies in the eastern ground floor room and has a large arched fireplace 2.7m wide, 1.55m high and 0.75m deep. A smaller fireplace with a corbelled lintel has been inserted into the earlier embrasure, which has a salt box in its S jamb.
The steading is U-shaped on plan and a threshing machine survives in the western wing. This was originally driven by a horse-engine outside the W wall, but much of the walkway has been removed. Subsequently the threshing machine was driven by a small petrol or diesel engine.
Visited by RCAHMS (PC, JRS), 12 November 1998.

Badenyon (spelt Badaneoin on the 1st Ordnance Survey map) is sited at the spot where the old drove road from the north crosses the glen, and is fairly typical, although larger than most, of the small farming settlements in Glenbuchat. The depopulation of this area is well documented, with ample evidence of ruins at almost every settlement. Badenyon, though, has earlier connections as the site of Badenyon Castle is immediately to the east of Begg´s House, itself superseded at the beginning of the twentieth century by the separately listed Jeannie´s House.

As a group they represent the story of the Glen. Badenyon developed from castle site to large settlement with its own limekiln and threshing mill, succumbing eventually to steady decline and depopulation throughout the 20th century. Declining farmhouses and steadings, as at the adjacent separately listed Begg´s House, are now commonplace throughout Glenbuchat parish. Jeannie´s House is a rare survival, it is one of the last inhabited farmhouses (although no longer a working farm) not yet subjected to modernisation.

It is not known when the castle became derelict, but seemingly before 1696 when the Poll Book lists 8 poleable persons living at Badenyon as tenants, and one widow. Little visible evidence of the castle remains apart from a large wall forming an impressive terraced bank, and probably the steading door hinge, described in The Book of Glenbuchat as ´a very fine wrought-iron hinge band, 1ft 11 ½´ in length, ending in a trefoiled point: this is evidently old work, taken from a door of consequence, and is probably a relic of the castle´. It was previously recorded as part of the steading at Begg´s House, but has always been situated at this earlier steading, and was recently carefully reinstated after replacement of the timber door.

Glenbuchat was purchased in 1901 by James W Barclay, a keen reformer, who replaced many of the old farmhouses during the early years of the 20th century. Jeannie´s House was the home of Jeannie Farquharson, a spinster famous for riding around the Glen on a motor bike. Her mother lived in the earlier cottage known as Jeannie´s Mother´s House. The group was purchased from the estate in 1970, and remains in the ownership of the same family today (2006).

The cropmarks of broad, curvilinear rig-and-furrow cultivation have been recorded on a vertical aerial photograph (OS 66/180/092, flown 22 July 1966) about 820m SE of Badenyon farmsteading (NJ31NW 16).
On the date of visit no trace of the rig was seen and the field was under cultivation.
Visited by RCAHMS (JRS), 26 September 2000.

In the vicinity of Badenyon lived St Walloch the Celtic saint:
Saint Walloch was a celtic missionary whose principal church was at Logie-in-Mar amongst the pictish settlements of what became known as Cro-mar. Far to the north of Glenbuchat we see a solitary glimpse of the presence of the Celtic church at Kilvalauche, somewhere in the forest of Badeneoin (NJ 333190), which is mentioned in a charter of 1507.1 This name can hardly mean anything else than the church of St Walloch. From the same document we learn that Culbalauche, St Walloch's retreat, was in the neighbourhood. Prior to 1473 the Chapel of Glenbuchat was a dependancy of Logie-Mar, the link with St Walloch thus being given the strongest argument conceivable in its favour. Incidentally, confirmation seems to be obtained from a statement 2 that St Walloch, in addition to his other church foundations, at Dunmeth in Glass and at Balvenie, had a church site in Strathdon.

The Michies of Badenyon

Poll Book 1696
Item, William Dunbar, tennent, and his wife, generall poll £0 12 0
Item, Adam Moir, tennent ther, and his wife 0 12 0
Item, John Roy, tennent ther, and his wife 0 12 0
Item, William Beitty, tennent ther, and his wife, generall poll 0 12 0
Item, John Moir, tennent ther, and his wife, generall poll 0 12 0
Item, Duncan Roy, tennent ther, and his wife, generall poll 0 12 0
Item, William Robertson, tennent ther, and his wife, generall poll 0 12 0
Item, Alaster Gillenders, tennent ther, and his wife, generall poll 0 12 0
Item, Elspet Couper, a widow ther, generall poll 0 6 0
Total £5 2 0

1852 Census
10 Badenyone
John Begg Head Mar 59 Farmer of 30 acres employing 5 lab Aberdeenshire, Glenbucket
Jannet do Wife do 54 do, Kildrummie
James do Son U 30 Auctioneer do, Glenbucket
William do do U 26 Ag Lab do, do
John do do U 22 do do do, do
Jean do Daur U 18 do, do
Peter Craford Grand Son 4 do, do
Jannet Cameron Serv 59? Household Serv Perthshire, Middle Church
Jean Proctor Serv U 18 Household Servt Banffshire, Mortlach
John Summerville do do 15 Farm Serv Glasgow
Alexr Grant do 12 do do Banffshire, Mortlach
[one?] house uninhabited
11 Badenyone
Alexr Fetter(?) Head U 59 Schoolmaster Aberdeenshire, Cabrach
12 do
William Michie Head Mar 66 Occupier of 6 acres Chelsea Pensioner do, Glenbucket
Margret do Wife do 68 do, do
Catherine do Dau U 33 Occasionally Farm Serv do, do
Willm do Son U 25 Farm Serv do, do
Hariot do Dau U 23 Household Serv do, do
Margret Brodie Grand Dau 5 do, do
William do Grand Son 2 mo do, do
John Henderson Visitor U 63 Annuitant UK
Jean Farquharson do U 56 do UK
13 Badenyone
James Michie Head Mar 50 Farmer of 12 acres employing 2 Lab Aberdeenshire, Glenbucket
Elisabeth do Wife Mar 51 Banffshire, Inveravon
Elspet do Dau U 22 House Serv Aberdeenshire, Glenbucket
John do Son U 20 House Serv do, do
James do do do 16 do do, do
Christina do Dau 13 do, do
14 Badenyone
James Clark Head Mar 73 House Carpenter Aberdeenshire, Glenbucket
Margret do Wife do 53 do, Coldstone
William do Son U 28 Day Labourer do, Glenbucket
Hellen do Dau U 22 House Serv do, do
Peter do Son U 20 Labourer do, do
Elisa Alexr do Grand Dau 1 do, Towie
15 Badenyone
Henretta Taggart Mar 46 do, Glenbucket
Ann do Dau U 22 Dress Maker do, do
Ann Brodie Foster child 5 do, do
John Norie Widr 50 Woolen Weaver do, Huntly
Rachel Gow Head W 65 Pauper do, Glenbucket
Thomas do Son U 34 Labourer Banffshire, Inveravon
Robert Moir Brother U 67 Pauper Aberdeenshire, Glenbucket
David Tulloch Head U 33 Occupier of 8 acres do, do
Peter do Father Mar 56 do, do
Ann do Mother do 56 InvernessShire, Cromdale
Margret do Sister U 31 Pauper Aberdeenshire, Glenbucket
Ann do Sister U 18 House Servant do, do
Sophia do do U 14 do do, do
Margret do Neice 2 do, Auchindoir

Picture added on 05 July 2010 at 09:53
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